Introduction To Book Keeping Ethics: Meaning, Problems And Solutions Of Lack Of Transparency, Accountability And Probity (Tap)

Book keeping is the process of recording business transactions in a systematic way to show the statements of transactions and the owners capital. It is important that the book keeper demonstrate caution in handling records of business transactions.

Ethics can be described as moral rules and code that guide a person in the performance of a job or profession. Rules are made by man and very important for the existence of man.

Without rules, society cannot be stable and orderly to live in. For this reason, the book-keeper must abide by the ethics of his profession.


The code of conducts designed for Book keeping is Transparency, Accountability, and Probity (TAP) by the book-keeper.

(1) Transparency:

Transparency refers to the quality of being honest, open and not having anything to hide in dealings.

It is important for a book keeper to demonstrate this attribute, in order to carry out his/her duty, without blemish.

(2) Accountability:

Accountability is the act of taking responsibility for one’s action and decision and a readiness to answer for such when asked to do so. It is expected that book keeper would always account for his actions.

(3) Probity:

Probity is the quality of being truthful and sincere in all aspect of one’s dealings. Probity is related to Transparency, Uprightness, Morality and Openness.

The book keeper or the accounting officer should demonstrate the quality of probity in discharging his/her duty.


Lack of transparency, accountability and probity is a big problem to public service and organizational growth.

i. It results to low productivity.

ii. There is low standards and waste of resources.

iii. Misuse of public funds, corruption, embezzlement and abuse of office.

iv. Bad Leadership, Lack of organizational growth, lack of development and possible collapse of business.

Solutions to the problems of Lack of Transparency, Accountability and Probity (TAP)

  1. Public Enlightenment
  2. Civic Education
  3. Punishment for Corrupt Leaders
  4. Rule of law…

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