Poultry Farming In Nigeria (Full Information)

There is no doubt that poultry farming in Nigeria is a profitable venture, both starting it on a small scale and on a commercial farming scale.

This article is currently the best guide to starting poultry farming in Nigeria.

Poultry farmers today are not meeting up with the daily demand of poultry products; that’s why this industry presents the most lucrative opportunities to make money in the livestock farming sector.

About Poultry Farming In Nigeria

Poultry farming in Nigeria is a popular agricultural practice. It is mostly practiced on a small scale or medium scale most especially for domestic consumption.

Commercial poultry farming in Nigeria is highly profitable and recommended since is predominately for commercial purposes. Yes, when thinking of starting a poultry farming , you should consider starting it on a commercial quantity because that’s where the profitability lies upon.

The most popular breeds reared in Nigeria includes Broilers, layers, cockerel, noilers, etc.

1. Broilers: They are reared mostly for meat production.

2. Layers: Layers are specifically reared for egg production.

3. Cockerels: This group of poultry birds are kept for meat production.

4. Noilers: Noilers are hybrid products of chicken reared for egg and meat production.

All these breeds of chickens are good for commercial purposes.

In this article, we will discuss the poultry farming in Nigeria under the following objectives:

  • Risks And Problems Of Poultry Farming In Nigeria
  • Profitability Of Poultry Farming In Nigeria
  • Importance Of Poultry Farming In Nigeria
  • Business Plan For Poultry Farming In Nigeria
  • How To Start Poultry Farming In Nigeria
  • Cost Of Poultry Farming In Nigeria

Risk And Problems Of Poultry Farming In Nigeria

Unlike any other businesses, there will always be risk, problems and challenges involved. Here are some of the major risk and problems of poultry farming in Nigeria:

1. Feeding Cost

Feed is the major problems of poultry farming in Nigeria as the prices of poultry food is quite expensive and the poultry birds consumes a lot of it. The quick rises of feed in the market are behind the challenges of poultry production in Nigeria. Not only in the feed but also, the rise in prices of ingredients used in making the feed.

Over the previous years, corns and soybean meal increased rapidly at high rate which had an effect on livestock production cost.

2. Capital

Poultry farming is adversely affected by problems associated with the startup capital. This is another problem beginners face when starting a poultry farm.

Just like any profitable business, poultry farming needs enough capital for investment. This is because the scale you invested in, will determine the level of profits you would have in this sector. If there is enough capital, there will be increase in facilities which should probably increase the production.

However, you may not do well as a poultry farmer most especially when you don’t have enough capital for startup. In fact, poultry farming is capital intensive which you will need enough funding for land, construction, equipment, feeding, medication, etc. And without good capital, you will struggle to keep your business on track. Nothing kills business faster than lack of funding.

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3. Outbreak Of Diseases

Acute infection is the most fearful risk involved in poultry farming and it can result to sudden deaths of all the poultry birds. When the environment is not properly taken care of, there is often result to infection and disease outbreak.

In poultry farming, any slightest mistake may take the lives of all the poultry birds because they are too sensitive to environmental changes.

4. Lack Of Government Support

Nigeria’s poultry farmers are dissatisfied with the government lack of supports in the poultry sector.

Main looking on how things are going, The government shows little or no much interest in poultry farming. This often brings discouragement to existing and upcoming farmers. Even some of the loans given by government for agricultural support has strict rules and conditions attach to it which makes it very hard to get the loan.

These are the 4 major risk and problem of poultry farming in Nigeria. However, existing or upcoming farmers should have the following in mind:

1. When starting a poultry farming in Nigeria, then you must be prepared to venture alone without waiting for government help or loan.

2. Ensure that your capital is 100% ready before getting started.

3. Good training and proper knowledge of poultry farming should be the number one factor to consider in order to understand the basics and know the managerial practices in poultry farming. So before venturing into poulry farming make sure you have a good knowledge of it.

4. The environment for poultry farming should be disinfected and kept clean. And avoid contaminated tools and equipment. Don’t let visitors into your poultry environemt and also ensure to sterize your hands before handling any poultry birds.

5. Good medication should be implemented.

Profitability Of Poultry Farming In Nigeria

Poultry farming is one of the most profitable livestock farming in Nigeria. Do you intend venturing into poultry farming but would like to know how profitable it is? Then read on to understand the aspect why poultry farming is considered to be a profitable venture.

1. Good Market Demand

There is a very huge market demands for poultry meat and eggs production. The growing demand for poultry products (meat and egg) is one of the reason why poultry farming in Nigeria is very lucrative. The eggs and meat are mostly demanded by hotels, restaurants, etc.

Grocery stores also demand for supplies of eggs for distribution and also selling to consumers.

2. High Return On Investment

The chickens grows very fast and ready for market within a shortwhile, Thereby giving poultry farming an attribute to quickest return on investment.

3. There is a ready market for all poultry products

4. Quick Reproduction

Main looking at the layers; They lay eggs almost everyday and takes less than 25 days on average to hatch. 1000 healthy layers are capable of reproducing more than 20,000 chicks within few months depending on the breed.

5. Affordable

The chickens and eggs sells at a very affordable price. The enormous demands in the market shows that poultry products are quite affordable unlike other livestock products.

These are few of the analysis which shows the profitability of poultry farming in Nigeria.

Importance Of Poultry Farming In Nigeria

1. Poultry farming is very important because it creates opportunities for individuals and entrepreneurs.

2. Commercial poultry farming helps in creating job/employment opportunities for job seekers.

3. It is a lucrative business with high return on investment.

4. Provision of nutritional value through poultry eggs.

5. Poultry farming in Nigeria helps to boost the country’s economy by contributing to major agricultural practices in Nigeria.

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Business Plan For Poultry Farming In Nigeria

Poultry farming is a highly thriving venture that requires a solid business plan. One of the importance of starting a poultry farm with business plan is that, it really helps you to comprehend all the strategies required to be successful. And besides, it can be the number one factor which helps you to get approved in government agricultural loan offer.

When writing a business plan for poultry farming, ensure that you do a case study so as to come up with the right plan. A good business plan consists of market analysis, SWOT analysis, your vision, objectives, services to be offered and responsibilities to be taken.
It also consist of your poultry farm name, budgeting and financing analysis, etc. Poultry farming business plan helps you develop a better business ahead.

Should in case you don’t know how to come up with a solid business plan, you should contact a professional who has mastered this business to develop a comprehensive business plan for you.

How To Start Poultry Farming In Nigeria

Here are step by step guide on how to start a poultry farming in Nigeria:

1. Good Farm Location

There are recommended guidelines when it comes to choosing a location for your poultry farm. Nobody would like to experience unpleasant smells around their places. And one important way to avoid this issue is to site your farm where it won’t affect the neighbourhood.

Most importantly, you need a location that have a good road network. The procurement processes starts by having good roads that are easily accessible. Your customers may feel dissatisfied if eventually the road to your farm is very bad.

And also ensure to plan ahead of the future when choosing a location. Let the location be good enough for housing, equipments, and poultry birds.

2. Capital

There should be total consideration given to the amount of money required to start up a profitable poultry farming. Funding your poultry business from your own pocket is very advantageous as it gives you total control of your business.

Note that commercial poultry farming in Nigeria is capital intensive, however you must try to explore any available strategy to successfully raise capital for your poultry farm.

3. Choice Of Breeds

There are three most important breeds for commercial purposes in Nigeria which are Broilers, layers and cockerels. Broilers are specially reared for meat production. Layers are mainly for egg production. While cockerel also; specifically reared for meat production.

Having identified the type of poultry farming to venture, you should select the foundation stock from the breeds you considered to be the best. If you don’t purchase or select healthy breeds, the production might seize or the yield won’t be favourable, And this will be the beginning of failure.

However to avoid failure, you should choose breed of improved quality. You must therefore be careful while choosing the breed. The choosen breeds must be healthy and have a trace of good growth rate and high production potential from it gene.

4. Equipment

There are different types of equipments used in poultry farming. And all the necessary equipments should be identified and made available. Some of the equipments are feeders, drinkers, incubators, heaters, coops and cages, egg tray, laying nests, brooders, etc.

5. Feeds

The nutritional requirements of the poultry birds should be attain and fulfilled in all ramifications. Their feeds should be given in correct rations. Have it in mind that unbalanced and insufficient feeds will affect the reproductive capacity and growth of the poultry birds. This is why you should understand their feeding requirements and be prepared to meet up with the rations.

6. Good Management

Poultry birds cannot perform well unless they are strong and healthy.

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Follow the protocols to ensure that there will be control and prevention of diseases. This should also include keeping the environment clean and avoiding overcrowding.

Ensure that the housing is well aerated and most importantly, don’t allow strangers or visitors to enter the poultry house. And lastly, plan a proper vaccination programme for your poultry birds.

7. Good Marketing System

There is no doubt that every business need to sell their services and products effectively and efficiently. This can only be achieved by having a good marketing strategy in place. Lots of poultry farmers struggles to sell their products quickly not because there is no demand, but because there is little or no serious marketing strategy applied.

Paying little attention to the sales and marketing aspect of your poultry business can slow down your profit. So, it will be nice to concentrate more in marketing your poultry business. Advertising your services is one great way of creating awareness.

There is also another marketing strategy which involves writing a proposal to restaurants, hotels and groceries to give you the opportunity to supply to them with an irrestible great offer.

These are the best guide to starting a poultry farming in Nigeria.

Management System In Poultry Production

Your choice of management system solely depends on the breeds. Here are the three system of managment used in poultry production:

1. The extensive system (Free range)
2. The semi-extensive system
3. The intensive system

1. The Extensive System

The extensive system also known as the “free range system” involves allowing the poultry birds to move freely and feed themselves under natural condition. The free range is the cheapest way of rearing poultry.

2. The Semi Extensive System

This system is a combination of the intensive and the extensive system.

The semi-extensive system allows the birds to move freely but on a restricted range. There is usually a fence on the poultry environment which allows them to move freely but on a limited range. The semi-extensive system also have a small house for the birds within the environment.

3. The Intensive System

The system requires a poultry house where the birds are kept indoors all the time. All their food and water are provided in their poultry house. The intensive system is the most effective and expensive method of raising poultry birds.

The intensive system consist of two major systems that are used in poultry farming today which are the deep litter system and battery cage system.

i. The deep litter system: This system is best used for poultry meat production. Layers can also be used in this method. Here the birds are kept in a well aerated and ventilated house with the floor covered with liters made of materials such as groundnut shells, woodshaving, sawdust, etc.

The water troughs and feeding are provided inside the deep litter house.

ii. The battery cage system: l This system is best used for poultry egg production (it is generally best for layers poultry farming). The battery cage consist of wire and several cages in it, probably one cage on top of the other.

The cage allows little movement. And there is easy collection of eggs as the floor of the cage slopes down gradually. The cages consist of troughs for feeds and water.

Cost Of Poultry Farming In Nigeria

How much does it cost to start a poultry farm in Nigeria? This has been the most important questions asked by lot of people who are interested in the poultry business.

Though is really hard to make an accurate estimate of the amount needed to start a poultry, but it could be determined on the category of farming. For example; small scale poultry farming involves 1 to 1000 birds, medium scale involves 1000 to 10,000 poultry birds, while commercial or large scale poultry farming requires 10,000+ birds.

So, you can as well estimate the startup capital according to the number of birds and facilities that can handle them.

However, starting a small scale poultry farming will require at least N100,000 to N500,000 and as high as N15 million for commercial poultry farming in Nigeria. This is a rough estimate of starting a poultry business.


Poultry farming in Nigeria is indeed a profitable venture. In order to have good productivity, you must ensure proper management of the poultry birds. When the potentials are fully exploited with good managerial practices, The the results will be awesome.

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