Fresh Water Habitat

Fresh Water Habitat

Table of Contents

FRESHWATER HABITAT

Freshwater habitat refers to aquatic habitats that are free of salt. Examples include rivers, streams, and some lakes.

Characteristics of Freshwater Habitat

  1. It has low salt content (low salinity) and little to no salt.
  2. The water body is much smaller than the marine habitat.
  3. It is affected by seasonal variations (i.e., rainy and dry seasons).
  4. The water is transparent, and light penetrates the surface.
  5. Temperature can vary with depth and season, affecting living organisms because they have a narrow tolerance.
  6. All parts of freshwater contain oxygen.
  7. The freshwater habitats are isolated from one another.

Types of Freshwater Habitat

There are two types:

Fresh Water Habitat

  • Standing freshwater- – This is a freshwater habitat where water does not flow but is still calm. Pools, ponds, ditches, lakes.                                            Fresh Water Habitat
  • Lotic/running water is flowing water, e.g., streams, rivers, and springs.

Ecological Zones In Freshwater Habitat

Four zones make up freshwater habitats.

  1. Top edge zone
  2. Top central zone
  3. Deeper central zone
  4. Bottom zone

Information about ecological zones of freshwater habitats, their characteristics, and the organisms that live there.

ZonesCharacteristicsOrganism
  1. Top edge zone supratidal zone
  1. Covered with water during the rainy season and exposed during dry seasons.
  2. Ideal temperature, light intensity, and wind action
Plants-: bamboo, raffia palm, algae, grassesToads, frogs, crabs, mosquito larva mosquito, and water snails are all examples of animals.
2. Top central zone-literal zone
  1. Surface water approximately 15cm away from the top
  2. You need to have enough light, oxygen, and nutrients.
  3. The best weather conditions are rain and wind.

Here you will find sub-merged plants, e.g., organisms known as neustons.

*Home to many aquatic animals

Plants: Water lettuce, water hyacinth, and duckweedAnimals:- Water bags, tadpoles, water scorpions, hydras, kingfishers. Frogs, salamanders.
3. Deeper central zone
  1. Low light and wind action
  2. Show water movement with low oxygen and high carbon(iv), oxide contents
The phytoplankton, or plants, e.g., diatoms blue-green algae.Animals include fish and flatworms.
4. Bottom zonesHighest level of carbon (iv), oxide at a low light intensityRare plants
Animals include fish and crabs, Mollusca, insect larvae, and Mollusca. Benthos are animals that live at the bottom.
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Adaptation of Organisms in freshwater habitat:

Plants:

  • Hydrophytes are water plants.
  • For easy transpiration, they have stomata at the surface of their leaves. water lily
  • For protection, some people have mucilage applied to their bodies. spirogyra
  • Some people have hair between their leaves to trap air to float on water.

Animals:-

  • Some animals have gills that allow them to breathe, e.g., fish and tadpoles.
  • Some are equipped with sucker, hook, and stick attachments. Others have operculum to regulate the inflow from the outside.
  • Some people have long legs that allow them to skate on the water’s surface, e.g., pond skaters.
  • Some people have hairs and brush for a fitter feeling, e.g., mosquito larvae.
  • To escape danger or avoid desiccation, some burrow into the mud.

Classification of Freshwater Organisms

  1. Based on the major niche and position within the food chain
    1. Autotrophs– (products), e.g. plant algae
    2. Phagotroph (macro consumer), e.g. crab fish
    3. Saprotrophs, e.g. (micro-consumers) and decomposed organisms that feed on dead organic matter, e.g., bacteria and fungi.
  2. Based on your life habits, We have
    1. Benthos — Bottom dwellers e.g., flatworm, mollusks
    2. Periphytons, e.g., Algae and insects
    3. Plantation e.g., algae, rotifers, cape pod
    4. Neukton e.g. Neukton e.g.
    5. Neuston- Adult insect, e.g., pond skater.

Food Chain In Freshwater Habitat

The phytoplankton is the producer of freshwater habitat, while the zooplanktons (and larger animals) are the consumers.

Phytoplanktons are –> Zoolankton is –> larger animal.

Chlorella –> Rotifers –> Tilapia

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