Differences Between Snack And Main Meal
Snacks are easily cooked light refreshing meals. They are served in-between the three main meals to sustain hunger. Snacks may be served while going on journey or picnic and they are usually made from locally available foods.
Examples of snacks are biscuits, plantain/potato chips, sausage roll, scotch egg, sandwiches, doughnuts, etc.
Guidelines For The Preparation And Serving Of Snacks
1. The snacks should be balanced.
2. They should be light and easily to digest.
3. They should not prevent the individual from eating the main meals.
4. Snacks should be served with suitable drinks.
There are three main meals per day in our society. These are breakfast, lunch and supper. Each meal is usually made up of three courses-the appetizer (1st) main meal (2nd) and dessert (3rd).
a. Breakness: This is the first meal of the day. It is important to break the fast of the previous night.
b. Lunch: This is the afternoon meal. It is eaten between breakfast and supper/dinner.
c. Supper/Dinner: This is the evening meal.
Components Of Meal
1. Appetizers are small portions of especially seasoned foods served hot or cold at the beginning of the meal. Foods used as appetizers are soups, fresh fruits juice (usually for breakfast) fish cocktail and a variety of hors doeuvres.
2. Main meal is the actual or bulk of three course meal. It consists of main dish (protein dish) and the accompaniment (carbohydrate dish).
Examples of main meal: Fried fish jellof rice; beef, okro soup and yam fufu, chicken stew and boiled rice, moi-moi and pap, etc.
3. Desserts are the sweet last course of a meal. It is often choose to complement the main meal.
It stands contrast in colour, textures, shape and flavour to the main meal. Examples of dessert dishes are ice cream, fruit salad, fruit drinks, cake, and so on.
Snacks And Drinks Available In The Society
Drinks are liquid foods apart from water. They may be called beverages, and can be served cold or hot. There are two types of drinks or beverages:
1. Non-alcoholic and
2. Alcoholic drinks.
1. Non-alcoholic drinks do not contain alcohol while the alcoholic drinks are spirits, wine and beer.
Drinks are useful for the following:
i. Refreshment and quenching the thirst e.g. Chilled fruit juices/drinks. Carbonated drinks e.g. “coke”, “sprite”, “seven up”, etc.
ii. Stimulating the body in cold weather, e.g. Tea, coffee and alcoholic drinks.
iii. Nourishing the body e.g. Egg nog, milk shake, cocoa drinks, etc.
Examples Of Snacks And Drinks Available In The Society
i. Boiled or roasted groundnut
ii.Boiled, roasted fresh maize
iii. Fried melon balls
iv. Plantain chips
vii. Banana tar
ix. Sausage rolls
xii. Meat or fish pie
xv. Potato chips/yam chips.
i. Guava drink
ii. Mango drink
iii. Cashew drink
iv. Mixed fruit drink (punch)
v. Orange drink
vi. Lemon drink
vii. Pineapple drink
viii. Ginger drink
ix. Egg and milk shake
x. Egg nog
xi. “kunu” (Guinea corn drink)
xii. Benue delight
xiii. Fresh palm wine
xiv. Fruit juice
xv. Nutri-C drink
xvi. Zobo drink.
Preparation Of Snacks, Drinks And Meals
1. Potato/Plantain/Yam Chips
i. Chips can be prepared from green plantain, potato, yam, etc.
ii. 2 fingers of green plantain (yam/potatoes)
iii. 50ml vegetable oil Salt to taste.
i. Wash and peel plantain (yam/potatoes may be used).
ii. Slice thinly.
iii. Season slightly with salt.
iv. Fry in deep oil until it is crisp and light brown.
v. Drain in a clean basket or kitchen paper and serve hot.
i. 100g flour.
ii. 50g fat (margarine or butter).
iii. 50g sugar.
iv. Egg or 1 tablespoon milk.
i. Sieve flour into a mixing bowl.
ii. Rub fat into flour with the fingertips until mixture resembles bread crumbs.
iii. Add the sugar and mix well.
iv. Add egg and mixed well to form stiff dough.
vi. Roll out biscuit dough on floured board.
vi. Cut into different shapes and using biscuit cutter.
vii. Arrange on a greased baking tray and glaze.
viii. Bake in moderately hot oven for 15-20 minutes.
i. 125g plain flour
ii. Teaspoon sugar
iii. 10g fat
iv. Level teaspoon yeast
v. A pinch of salt
vi. 5 tablespoon milk.
i. Sieve the flour and salt into a mixing bowl.
ii. Rub the fat and yeast into the flour.
iii. Add the suger, beaten egg, milk or water.
iv. Mix well and turn into floured board.
v. Knead well until the dough is elastic and smooth.
vii. Turn the dough onto the floured board and knead very lightly.
ix. Bake in a moderate oven for 30 minutes.
Coffee seeds are obtained from matured coffee plant. The coffee seeds (beans) are roasted, milled and bottled. It contains caffeine which acts as a mild stimulant to the heart and nerves. Coffee has no food value; it is therfore important to drink it with sugar and milk. It is not recommended for young people.
i. Teaspoon of instant coffee powder.
ii. Cup of boiling water.
iv. Sugar or honey to taste.
i. Boil water.
ii. Put the coffee into the cup.
iii. Add boiling water.
iv. Add sugar or honey to taste.
v. Add milk if desired.
Tea is a dried leaves from the top of the stem of the tea plant. Tea is stimulant and contains tannin.
There are different types of tea, which differ in flavour and aroma.
Tea is sold in different forms e.g. Instant tea which is easy to prepare and tea leaves in packets.
i. Tea cup.
ii. Teaspoon of tea leaves or a 1 bag.
iii. Boiling water.
iv. Sugar and milk.
i. All utensils must be clean.
ii. Pre-heat the tea pot by pouring boiling water into it for few minutes and pour it out.
iii. Put the tea into the tea pot.
iv. Pour boiling water over the tea.
v. Leave to infuse for about 3-5 minutes. Strain or remove tea bag.
vi. Serve with milk and sugar to taste.
3. Cocoa Drink
Cocoa seeds are obtained from cocoa pods. The seeds are fermented, dried and processed into powder. Cocoa drink is good for children, pregnant women and invalids.
Unlike tea and coffee, cocoa contains vital nutrients such as carbohydrates and fats. Available forms of cocoa in the market include: “Milo”, “Vitarich”, “Pronto”, “Bonvita”, “Ovaltine”, etc.
i. 1-2 teaspoonful of cocoa powder.
ii. Boiling water.
iv. Sugar to taste.
i. Put the cocoa powder into a cup.
ii. Pour a boiling water.
iii. Serve with milk and sugar.
C. Fruits Drinks
Fruit drinks are made from different types of fruits. They can be made into fruit drinks or juices. Fruit drinks contain sugar or syrup while fruit juice has no sweetening. Suitable fruits for drinks and juices are orange, lime, lemon, apples, pineapples, mango, water melon, etc.
Sugar syrup can be prepared with 80g of granulated sugar of cubes of sugar. 1 cup of water.
i. Put a pot on fire.
ii. Add water.
iii. Allow to boil.
iv. Reduce the heat and simmer until the syrup is slightly thick.
v. Leave to cool.
Guidelines For Making Fruit Drinks
ii. Never add hot syrup of juice. Hot syrup can destroy the vitamins present in the juice.
iii. Fruit drink are better served chilled.
iv. Put drinks in plastics and bottles, never in metal containers. This can alter the flavour of the drinks.
Water Melon Drinks
i. 1/2 water melon.
ii. 2 cups of clean water.
iii. Sugar syrup.
i. Wash and cut the water melon.
ii. Scrap out the freshy part and remove all the seeds.
iv. Add sugar syrup.
v. Strain the mixture into a bowl.
vi. Chill and serve.
i. 2 or 3 oranges.
ii. Syrup to taste.
iii. 250-280mls of water.
i. Wash the oranges thoroughly.
ii. Cut the oranges into two halves cross-wise.
iii. Use a fruit juicer to squeeze out the juice.
iv. Strain with a clean strainer to remove any seeds.
v. Add the water.
vi. Add sugar syrup and chill.
i. Medium sized pineapple.
ii. A few cloves.
iii. Sugar syrup.
iv. 250-280mls of clean water.
v. Lime juice if desired.
i. Wash the pineapple thoroughly.
ii. Peel and put the peelings in a saucepan, add water, put to boil for 5-10 minutes.
iii. With the help of a pineapple squeezer, squeeze out the juice from the pulp.
iv. Allow the boiled peelings to cool, strain out the liquid.
v. Mix the juice and the strained liquid.
vi. Add the cloven and syrup to taste.
vii. Chill and serve.
i. Medium size sour-sop.
ii. Syrup to taste.
iii. 300ml clean cold water.
i. Wash the sour-sop thoroughly.
ii. Peel and squeeze out the juice.
iii. Strain through a clean strainer.
iv. Add water and syrup.
v. Chill and serve.
Cooking and serving of meals is an important function of every home-manager. Meal preparation, cooking and serving must be done in clean environments. The meals must be nourishing, adequate and appetizing.
Guidelines For Cooking And Serving Meals
i. Plan what to cook, how and when to cook. Meals should be adequate.
ii. Consider the needs of family members in terms of their age, occupation and health status.
iii. List and select food containing different nutrients. Use foods in season.
iv. Make sure that all utensils required are within reach and clean.
v. Maintain good personal hygiene before handling food.
vi. Adopt safety measures in the kitchen.
vii. Use the best method of cooking to preserve the nutrients in food.
viii. Keep the kitchen tidy before, during and after use.
ix. Store all left over food stuffs and ingredients properly.
x. Clean all the Gadgets used for cooking.
Method Of Meals Preparation
Meals are prepared using different methods of cooking. Cooking must be done with the best method that can allow for maximum retention of food nutrients.
There are different ways of cooking. Some foods are cooked by moist heat while others are cooked with dry heat.
A. Moist heat methods: Boiling, stewing, steaming, frying.
B. Dry heat methods: baking, grilling, roasting.
A. Moist Heat Methods
Boiling is cooking food in boiling water. It is suitable of cooking yam, beans, corn, egg, meat, etc.
Rules For Boiling
1. Boiling water must cover the food properly.
2. Cook gently until the food is tender.
3. Care must be taken so that the food is neither soggy nor broken.
1. It is a quick, easy and safe method of cooking.
2. It requires little or no attention.
3. It makes food soft and easy to digest.
1. Some of the food nutrients and flavour are lost in the water in which the food is boiled.
2. Boiled foods do not look attractive.
3. Boiled foods e.g yam can easily break into pieces.
4. Flavour of boiled foods are not developed except flavouring agents are added.
Stewing method is suitable for cooking cheap cuts of meat-leg of beef, neck of lamb or mutton, ox tail, fruits, vegetables.
Rules And Stewing
1. Season foods properly.
2. Cut foods into small pieces to expose as much surface as possible.
3. Always use sauce pan with cover to prevent evaporation.
4. Use sufficient liquid that is appropriate for the type of food.
5. At the beginning, bring food to boiling point, then reduce heat while cooking.
Advantages Of Stewing Method Of Cooking
1. It requires little attention.
2. It is economical because cheap cuts of meat can be used.
3. Stewing makes tough cuts of food to be tender and easily digestible.
4. It requires little fuel.
5. It is a conservative method of cooking food.
Disadvantages Of Stewing Method Of Cooking
1. Stewing takes a longer time because of the slow cooking.
2. Some delicate nutrients such as vitamins B and C may destroyed because of the long cooking period.
Suitable foods for steaming include: Pudding, fish, “moi-moi”.
Rules For Steaming
1. The steamer should be lightly covered to prevent the steam from escaping.
2. Wrap the food properly to prevent direct contact with water or steam.
3. Allow water to boil before putting food inside.
4. Keep water for steaming boiling at all times.
5. Never add cold water to prevent dropping the temperature below boiling point.
Advantages Of Steaming Method
1. Food nutrients are retained as they are not lost in the cooking water.
2. Steamed food is light and easily digestible.
3. It needs very little attention.
4. Steamed foods are suitable for the aged, invalids, convalescents and children.
5. Two or more types of food, with similar flavour can be cooked at the same time.
6. Steaming requires low heat, so it is economical in terms of fuel.
7. There is little or no risk of over cooking food.
8. Steamed food has delicate flavour.
Disadvantages Of Steaming Method
1. Steamed food may not look attractive except if it is properly garnished.
2. It is only suitable for soft foods.
Frying Is a method Of cooking Food in hot oil. Frying can be done in three ways:
(i). Shallow fat frying
(ii). Deep fat frying
(iii). Dry frying.
Suitable foods for frying include yam, plantain, meat, fish, “Akare” balls, etc.
Rules For Frying
Shallow fat frying is used when foods are cooked in a heated fat covering the bottom of the pan.
Enough fat is used to prevent the food from sticking to the frying pan. The food is constantly turned.
Suitable foods for shallow fat frying include: Pancakes, cutlets, Egg, etc.
Deep fat frying method requires enough oil to cover 2/3 of the cooking pot. The pot should be heavy and deap. This method is good for frying, akare balls, fried yam, doughnuts, etc.
Dry Frying is used for foods which already contain plenty of fat. When food is heated, fat melts and runs out of the food. Dry frying is suitable for herrings, bacon and other fatty parts of pork.
Rules For Frying
1. Heat the oil before placing the food in it. Let the oil to sizzle, do not allow it to burn.
2. Coat foods to be shallow-fried with seasoned flour, beaten agg and bread crumb, for better appearance and to conserve the nutrients.
4. Fry the food until golden brown.
5. Remove food from oil, when it is done and drain excess oil.
6. Pre-heat oil and continue frying.
7. Do not cover fried food closely while it is still hot otherwise water vapour may settle on top and make the food soggy.
8. Serve fried food while hot.
Advantages Of Frying Method
1. It is a fast or quick method of cooking.
2. Fried foods are attractive.
3. Fried foods have good flavour and are tasty.
4. Fried foods are filling and keep hunger away since fat/oil used in frying does not digest easily.
Disadvantages Of Frying Method
1. Fried foods are not easily digested.
2. It needs skill and careful cooking else the food may easily burn.
3. There may be loss of fat soluble nutrients especially if the food is not coated before frying.
4. It requires constant attention.
5. Fried foods are not suitable for children invalid and aged people.
Banking is a method of cooking food with hot air in an enclosed space usually an oven. The oven must be pre-heated to the correct temperature before placing food in it, suitable food for baking are cakes, pudding, pastries, yeast mixtures (bread, doughnut, etc).
Rules For Baking
1. Pre-heat oven before putting dough to bake.
2. Set oven the at the required temperature and note the cooking time.
3. Do not overcrowd the oven so that hot air can circulate freely.
4. Avoid opening the oven too frequently.
5. Do not bang oven door after placing food inside it.
Advantages Of Banking Method
1. Baked foods are attractive and appetizing.
2. Nutrients present in foods are not lost.
3. It has fuel economy as more than one dish can be baked at the same time.
4. Baking needs expert hands.
Disadvantages Of Baking Method
1. It requires constant attention.
2. It requires careful temperature and time control.
Roasting is a method of cooking food in an open pot over glowing fire (roasting groundnut), on a grid over smokeless charcoal (roasting maize); in hot sand or ash (roasting yam) or in a pot with little oil (meat in pot roasting).
Suitable food for roasting include; poultry, better cuts of meat, maize, groundnut, potatoes, and yam.
Rules For Roasting
1. Turn foods constantly.
2. Do not allow flowing fire.
3. Baste constantly.
Advantages Of Roasting Method
1. Food is tasty.
2. It is an easy method of cooking.
3. Retains good flavour and nutrient values of food.
4. Has attractive and appetizing appearance.
Disadvantages Of Roasting Method
1. Requires constant attention.
2. Valuable nutrients especially in meat roasting may be lost into the fire.
3. Only tender and expensive cut of meat are roasted.
Rules For Grilling
1. Pre-heat the grid before putting food for quicker and better cooking.
2. Grease the grid.
3. Grill only tender cuts of meat.
4. Grilling must be done with hot, glowing and smokeless fire.
5. Grill and turn the food over to cook on both sides.
Advantages Of Grilling method
1. Grilled food are tasty and easy digested.
2. Food are less fatty when grilled than when fried.
3. It is a quick method of cooking small cuts of meat.
4. It is a good method of cooking good for people on low fat diet.
Disadvantages Of Grilling Method
1. Requires constant attention as foods must be turned frequently.
2. If not well moistened, the food will be dry.
3. This cooking method is only suitable for the more tender cuts of meat.
Preparation Of Simple Meals
Good cooking calls for high acceptance of good and bad cooking leads to a lot of plate wastes.
Variety of dishes can be be produced from one food item using different methods of cooking. For example yam can be boiled, fried, stewed to give variety of dishes and tastes.
1. Meat (Beef) Jollof Rice
250 gram of meat.
Cup of rice.
3 Medium size pepper.
Medium size tomatoes.
4 tablespoon vegetable oil.
Dessert spoon tomato puree
4 cups of water.
Salt, curry, thyme, to taste.
1. Wash and cut meat into small pieces. Season with salt and onion, boil until tender.
2. Parboil rice and wash.
3. Heat the oil and add ground pepper, onion and tomatoes. Cook to blend all.
4. Add meat stock and water (if necessary) season the stew with salt, thyme, curry, pepper, etc. To taste.
5. Add the parboiled rice and stew for 10 mins.
6. Add the meat.
7. Cook gently over low heat, stirring at interval to prevent burning.
8. Granish with sliced tomatoes, saute leafy vegetable and blanched onion.
9. Serve the jellof rice hot.
ii. Fried Fish Coconut Rice
Medium size fish.
2 cups of rice.
5 cups of water.
Salt, pepper to taste.
1. Cut the fish, wash, spice, coat with flour and fry.
2. Shell the coconut, wash and grate.
3. Add water to the grated coconut, strain to separate the milk and the fibre.
4. Put the coconut liquid to boil, wash and add the rice. Add onion, salt, pepper etc.
5. Stir occasionally until the rice is done.
6. Garnish with sauteed vegetable and sliced tomatoes.
7. Serve with the fried fish.
iii. Yam Pottage
Medium size yam.
Medium size onion.
3 large tomatoes.
3 tablespoons of palm oil.
iv. Grilled Fish
2 Medium size fish (herring).
White pepper to taste.
Salt to taste.
1. Slice, peel and place yam in a bowl of water to prevent discolouration.
2. Wash into boiling water.
3. Wash fish and add.
4. When the yam is half cooked add ground pepper, tomatoes, onions and palm oil.
5. Add ground crayfish and cook until yam is tender.
6. Garnish and serve with sauted vegetable.
1. Wash and cut fish into small cutlets.
2. Season fish cutlets with white pepper and salt. Keep for a few minutes for the seasonings to penetrate into the fish.
3. Heat the grill and oil grill rack.
4. Put fish to grill, turn it on all the sides until well cooked (Brush with fat when it is dry).
5. Garnish with tomatoes.
6. Serve hot with suitable sauce.
Cups of beans
2 large tomatoes.
150 ml palm oil or groundnut oil.
Salt to taste.
1. Wash and boil beans until tender.
2. Clean the fish (remove bones and wash), grind tomatoes, onion and pepper.
3. Fry fish, tomatoes, onion and pepper in hot oil.
4. Season to taste.
5. Add boiled beans and simmer for 30 mins.
6. Allow the consistency to be thick, garnish and serve hot.
vi. Okra Soup
500g fish and meat
Cups of crayfish
Bunch of green leafy vegetable
4 ball of pepper
4 spoons of palm oil
salt to taste.
1. Prepare fish or cut meat into pieces.
2. Put meat to boil, season with salt and onion.
3. Add water, dry fish, crayfish and simmer gently until the stock is tasty.
4. Cut or grind okra and add. Add palm oil.
5. Wash, shred leaf vegetable and add, when a thick and drawing consistency as been achieved.
6. Serve with foo-foo.
Preparation Of Food For Packaging
The primary objective of food packaging is to contain and protect it from physical, chemical and mostly microbiological spoilage.
At the same time food packaging serves as a powerful marketing too attracting the consumer with features such as easy opening, colourful labels, and handling information. These include nutrient and caloric content of the contained products, instructions on the preparation and use of the package content.
Packaged foods often serve as convenience foods used in meat preparation. Some foods such as biscuits, pastries, drinks, cakes, etc.
Eaten by people who can not obtain meals outside their home for the period they are away are also referred to as packaged food. Suitable Materials For Packaging Foods Include;
1. Plastic food containers with lid.
2. Well-corked bottles
3. Stainless materials
4. Plastic jars and bottles
5. Cans of various sizes
Important Points In Food Packaging
1. The hygiene of the environment in which the food is package play a major role in the food safety process.
2. Food should be correctly labeled. An adverse health effect can result from incorrect labeling (e.g. Missing detail on the list of ingredient).
3. Containers must have prper seal.
4. Materials used (e.g. Inks for writing) must not contain dangerous substances that may migrate through the package and into the food.
5. Package food should be easy to carry.
6. All essential nutrients and calorie as sated on the label must be present in the food.
7. Persons involved in food packaging must be well-equipped with knowledge of personal hygiene, washing and the sanitization of equipment, utensils and surfaces.
There should be proper understanding of the consequences of malpractice.
Examples Of Packaged Food
Plantain and potato chips
Duties Of Food Providers/Sellers For The Public
Who Is A Food Provider?
Food providers or sellers are the persons or groups responsible for ensuring that the requirements of food laws are met within the food business under control.
Food providers generate income while providing satisfactory dishes to the consumer.
Types Of Food Providers And Their Duties
1. Restaurants: Restaurants focus on the provision of ethnic eateries, steak houses vegetarian dinners. They provide small to large, casual to fancy food services.
2. Cafes: Cafes focus mainly on provision of beverages, snacks and fast food.
3. Bakeries: Bakeries make breads and rolls as well as sweet desserts.
4. Catering Companies: They plan and supply the food for events such as wedding, parties and business dinners.
5. Mobile Lunch Trucks: They carry food and beverages to sell at job sites or on location at film sets.
6. Food Stands Or Kiosks: They feature specific type of products such as sausages, pies, popcorn, pizza and drinks.
How To Start Food Selling Business
2. Contact the state’s department of public health and find out the requirements for a food product business.
3. Obtain the necessary permit e.g. Food enterprise license. Also obtain permits needed in your area to run a retail food business.
4. Become familiar with food and drug administration, NAFDAC, SON etc. Guidelines concerning the production and sales of food including safety and sanitation regulation, how to choose appropriate packaging and how to label food products.
5. Develop appealing packaging for your products.
6. Secure venues to sell the food products out door sell is usually difficult because of the high traffic involved.
7. Have a large colourful poster with your business name, logo, phone number, motto and hang it within the premises.
8. Hire one or two persons to help you to cook food, handle customers and deal with money.
9. Plan how to safe the money you receive while selling your food.
10. Join a professional food producer’s association.
Points To Bear In Mind In Food Selling Business
1. It may require a fairly large investment.
2. The location and equipment for preparing and packaging food items must be adequate as well as meet legal standards.
3. Advertising and promotional strategies must be well planned to make consumers be adware of the new products.
4. Purchase items in bulk especially at local market.
5. Ensure that the products are regular and timely.
6. Hot foods must be hot and cold foods must be cold.
7. The service must be prompt.
8. Ensure that the environment, persons equipment and utensils are clean at all times.
Marketing is the identification of customer needs and requirements so as to be able to meet or provide the needs as well as make profit and other key organizational objectives.
It also includes the series of services involved in moving a product (food items) from the point of production to the point on consumption.
To identify and provide the needs of the consumer, it must involve;
1. Carrying out market research to find out about consumer requirements, it could be
a. Quantitative Research:
This involves collecting information by using techniques such as questionnaires and other forms of survey.
b. Qualitative Research:
This involves working with smaller sample of consumers, often asking them to discuss products and services the producer has been able to offer. The researcher takes note of their observations.
2. Combine the findings of the different from research.
3. The food provider should make changes where necessary, having a marketing focus in everything done.
4. The marketing section should work very closely with the production section to make sure that new and existing product development is tied in closely with the needs and expectations of the customers.