A coffee bean is a seed from the Coffea plant (Coffea liberica and Coffea racemosa) that is used to make the popular brewed beverage coffee. Coffee, after oil, is the world’s second most popular and traded commodity, and it has experienced fast development in both domestic and international markets. Small-scale and large-scale producers both contribute to the rapid growth of the coffee market and both profit from it.
In today’s world, the coffee market has become almost indispensable. It is expected to be worth $28.6 billion as of the year 2019. Despite the fact that coffee is thought to have originated in Ethiopia, Africa only accounts for roughly 10% of global coffee exports. Brazil is currently the world’s biggest coffee grower, accounting for over 25% of yearly global exports (2.6m MT). Vietnam (1.6 million MT), Colombia (810,000 MT), Indonesia (660,000 MT), and Ethiopia (600,000 MT) are the next largest producers (384,000 MT). The United States, the European Union, and Japan, on the other hand, are the leading coffee importers. The combined market share of Europe and North America is 67 percent. Coffee’s popularity continues to rise in major markets such as China, the United Kingdom, Japan, and some African countries.
The well-known plant has also been effectively adapted to a variety of cultures, soils, and environments. Nigeria is one of the countries that has benefited from these adjustments. In 2019, the country exported 2,100 MT of coffee beans. Since 2018, the coffee market in Nigeria has dropped by more than 2.5 percent. The drop is attributable to a lack of investment and a general negative attitude toward the coffee industry. Nigeria might compete with the continent’s largest producers and exporters of coffee beans if the appropriate production conditions are in place.
Regardless, the coffee bean farming industry has a lot of potential for both farmers and agro-businesspeople.
What Are Coffee Beans and How Do You Use Them?
A coffee bean is found inside a Coffee plant’s fruit (called a cherry). It is the origin of the popular beverage “coffee.” They have the appearance of a hard-shelled bean seedling. Coffee beans are characterized as “two stones with their flat sides together” and are located in a red/pink tilted fruit.
What Is Coffee Bean Farming and How Does It Work?
Coffee bean farming is the process of growing coffee beans for personal consumption and/or commercial purposes.
In Nigeria and around the world, there are numerous business opportunities associated with coffee bean farming.
How To Start Coffee Bean Farming In Nigeria: A Step-By-Step Guide
1.) Land Preparation
1). Land Preparation: Coffee plants grow best in locations that receive a lot of rain. When it comes to starting a coffee farm, the depth of the soil is critical. The soil must be well-drained, wet, loose, and organically rich. Minerals like zinc, carbon, and hydrogen must be present in the soil. The coffee tree can absorb nutrients efficiently in loamy soil that is up to 150cm deep and has an acidic pH of at least 4.5. Before deciding on which manure or fertilizer to use, test the soil to ensure it contains all of the necessary nutrients. A year before the coffee is planted, the soil should be readied for planting. All trees and roots should be uprooted, and the area should be cleansed. The land should be ploughed or harrowed to create a slope up to 15% with rows across the slope. Also plant ground covers to avoid erosion.
Coffee is grown in rows 2 meters apart, with plants spaced 1.5 meters apart inside each row. Because of the sun’s position, the rowing direction should preferably be north/south. Shade trees are planted a year before the coffee seed is planted in places with heavy sunlight to shield the young coffea tree from drought stress and overexposure to the sun, which turns the leaves yellow and can eventually kill it. Shading the Coffea tree encourages a better balance of flowering and growth, resulting in more berries. The legumes employed as shade trees supply organic matter to the soil, which is beneficial to its health.
2.) Planting the Cofee Seedlings
When it comes to cultivating high-quality coffee, choosing the right seed is critical. The seed is not suitable for planting if the berry is not ripe. Unripe seeds are unable to germinate and will rot. Never retain the seeds for more than two weeks after they’ve been selected.
Nursery planting and transplanting are the two steps of coffee planting. Depending on your desire, you’ll need a tin can, a polythene bag, or a small area of land for the first stage. During the planting seasons, it is best to plant early in the morning or late at night. When planting, place the seeds flat on the ground with the groove side facing down. Try not to over-push the seedlings into the earth; otherwise, they won’t get enough air. Because newly planted coffee seeds demand a lot of water, water them on a regular basis. It is easy to water the seeds with an irrigation system in place. Place the bags/pots housing the seeds under a shade tree if you’re using a pot or polythene bag.
4). Prepare The Holes For Transplanting
Transplantation is the next step. When the coffee trees reach an 11/12 foot height, or 6 – 9 months following planting, they are transplanted. Water the trees in the bag completely before transplanting. Cutting the bag or gently sliding the plant out of the bag are two methods for removing plants from plastic bags. Gently pry the tree out by hand and carefully straighten thick roots to ensure that the tree grows straight when planted. Remove any poor or dead roots, as well as any roots that are badly twisted. Place the roots upright in the middle of the soil you drew with the stick (make sure it’s not slanted), then pour soil into the hole, lightly pressing it to contact and connect with the roots.
A month before the coffee is planted, this process is carried out. Begin by tracing out the planting holes. Leave 30cm between each hole and dig holes that are 50cm deep, 50cm long, and 50cm wide. After digging the holes, pile the topsoil on one side and the bottom soil on the other (do not mix the two), then cover the dug-out soil to prevent solar damage or erosion. With a stick, mark the center of the hole.
Other Related Coffee Businesses Africa
1). Café for Coffee Roasting
Freshly brewed coffee is preferred by the majority of coffee drinkers over pre-packaged brands. Setting up a coffee roasting store for those who prefer fresh, natural coffee is a profitable business that may be done on a local or large scale.
2). Coffee Mix Production And Distribution
Most coffee shops purchase coffee that has already been mixed. They purchase their coffee from companies that sell already-brewed coffee. You can start a coffee manufacturing business that makes and sells coffee and coffee-related products.
3) Coffee Outlet
Coffee is consumed as a breakfast beverage by a vast number of individuals all over the world. Some of them don’t even have time to make it at home. You could sell your coffee drinks to those who want to pick up a bottle on the go. You might also create a coffee shop where people can conduct business or relax and enjoy themselves.
Cocoa Beans’ Health Benefits
- Coffee improves physical performance in humans.
- Coffee keeps the mind alert and focused.
- Coffee beans take four years to grow on a coffee plant.
- Coffee can help you live longer.
- Coffee was first consumed by goats.
- Cancer risk is reduced by drinking coffee.
- Coffee has a low calorie count.
- Coffee lowers the risk of having a stroke.
- Coffee wasn’t always known as such. The Italian word “Caffe” was used to coin the term “coffee.”
- Parkinson’s disease is less likely when you drink coffee.