Communication: Meaning, Purpose, Importance And Various Method

Table Of Contents

  • Meaning Of Communication
  • The Purpose Of Communication
  • The Importance Of Communication
  • The Various Methods Of Communication
  • Differentiation Between Oral And Written Communication
  • Forms Of Oral Communication
  • Towards Effective Communication

Meaning Of Communication
Communication is the exchange of information and transmission of meaning. Unless the person you are communicating with understands your meaning, no communication has taken place.
Communication can also be seen as a two-way process im which people pass urgent information from one organization to another or from one system to another in automatic systems.
The Purpose Of Communication
Communication is used for the following purposes:
1. Giving training.
2. Allocating work.
3. For issuing instructions.
4. For personal conversations between supervisors and subordinates.
The basic purpose of communication is to transmit information, ideas, or thoughts to someone else so that you are understood and you understand others.
Communication is more than telling or writing because there is no communication unless you are understood. Lack of understanding is the biggest difficulty encountered in communication.
The Importance Of Communication
Communication is an important management tool. Communication is the means through which a manager gets the job done. A careless order given to an employee can result in serious reaction instead of hoped for action. Communication is essential in achieving the following objectives:
1. Select The Proper Person For The Job. Through interview and verbal exchange.
2. Tell The Person Selected The Objective Sought. Or mutually reach agreement on what the objective should be. Communication is vital in these cases/effots.
3. Provide a clear description of the work to be done. Again communication is essential.
4. Relate what delays and problems are to be avoided. Either written or verbal communication is required to do this.
5. Explain the relationship of his work to other works in the department.
The Various Methods Of Communication
Communication may be sent by the following methods:
1. Letters
2. Memorandum
3. Circulars and bulletin
4. Telegrams and cables
5. Telex and teleprinter
6. Intercom
7. Telephone (GSM)
8. Television and Internet Access
9. Audio machines tapes and Dictaphones
10. Radio
11. Face-to-face
12. Mechanical devices converyor belts, lifts
13. Messenger service.
Tannoy system; A system by which one person can pass information to everyone in a building by simply switching on the set and talking into a microphone. The message will be heard in every department which has a speaker linked to the system.
Differentiation Between Oral And Written Communication
Communication may be either written or spoken (oral)
1. Oral communication which apart from personal, face-to-face coversaions, are represented by telephone systems, interviews, training sessions, meetings and general conversation all use oral communication. Two basic skills are required for effective oral communication. These are talking and listening.
On many occasions in business, oral communication is not enough. The written communication is resorted to. The written word has several advantages.
Complex information can become muddled when it is passed by word of mouth; in written for, it is clear and easier to understand. It can be read and absorbed at the reader’s own speed.
Forms Of Oral Communication
1. Face-to-face
2. Telephone (GSM)
3. Radio phone
4. Meetings and video conferencing
5. Interviews
6. Joint consultations
Forms Of Written Communication
Written communication can be divided into two (1.) Internal (2.) External
Internal Communication Includes:
1. Memorandum
2. Reports and Summaries
3. Notices and Circulars
4. Bulletins and House Journals.
External Communication Includes:
1. Letters
2. Press releases
3. Notices and Circulars
4. Report
5. Telex
6. Facsimile telegraphy
The points to bear in mind when sending written communication: Conciseness, accuracy, clarity, appropriateness of language.
Barriers To Communication
Communication may be hindered by the Following:
1. Lack Of Sound Objective: Poor knowledge of the subject matter can hinder communication.
2. Use Of Technical Jargons: When encoding a message many senders make use of technical jargons without considering the receiver of the message. The result is poor encoding and thus a barrier to effective communication.
3. Lack Of Attention On The Part Of The Receiver Few people can listen for more than a few minute without loss of concentration. The receiver may be disturbed by a number of other things, but he should maintain receptivity at all times.
4. Irrelevant Data Irrelevant data can also hamper effective communication. The transmitter must sift the wheat from the chaff before sending out his message.
5. Lack Of Preparation: Poor preparation makes for unorganized message. The transmitter must think clearly, arrange logically, express clearly and use appropriate language to channel his message.
6. Noise: This is a term for all forms of impedance to the transmission of meaning from the sender to the receiver. It is pervasive.
Towards Effective Communication
1. Clarity
A message needs to be as striaghtforward and as logically stated as possible. Very, often, lack of clarity is due to an attempt to include so many ideas within the same sentence.
2. Completeness
In our efforts to simplify and clarify, we fall into the trap of incompleteness. It is important to develop skill in role playing for the final evaluation of a message you are preparing to send. That is, increase your ability to pretend you are the recipient of the message, read it or hear it through his perception set. Part of a message may be more harmful than no message at all.
3. Conciseness
The president of a famous cosmetic company in USA refuse to read any memorandum that was longer than one page. According to him, there was nothing to be said about a soap that should take more than a page. The message is the better for understanding. Avoid verbosity and unnecessary digression.
4. Correctness
Poor use of communication techniques is all in vain, if the message is incorrect. Be factual; Check your facts and figures before putting pen to paper.
5. Be Exact
Choose the words that convey what you mean. If there is any possibility of misunderstanding, modify the words in a way that will help your listeners to receive your intended meaning. Depend upon words and sequences to transmit your idea intact to your listeners. Say exactly what you mean. Try to avoid the repetition of the phrase “What i really mean is…” Say what you mean the first time.
6. Avoid Overworked Words
There are many speakers who make use of common words which no longer express an exact meaning. The word “Beautiful”, for instance, has developed into an all-purpose symbol which lacks preciseness. You meet a friend in the company and you remark, “it’s a beautiful day”. Coming away from the stadium you hear someone else say “that was a beautiful game”. The word beautiful is overworked to a point of meaninglessness.
7. Punctuation
Punctuate correctly or your expression could be very ambiguous.