Biomes Of The World – Types Of Biomes And Their Characteristics

Biomes, both world and local Biomes 2022


  • Biomes
  • Local Biomes
  • World Biomes


Biomes are huge terrestrial ecosystems that are identified by their predominant vegetation. They are terrestrial as plants comprise the bulk of every ecosystem e.g. A forest biome is characterized by large, densely packed trees, while grasses, along with a few scattered shrubs can be found in the savanna biome. The climate determines the kind of vegetation found in a biome. They could include rain as well as the relative humidity of temperatures and humidity as well as and light.


  1. Which is the definition of a biome?
  2. Give four elements that influence the biome’s vegetation.



The biomes local to Nigeria include:

  • Mangrove swamp
  • Tropical rain forest
  • Savanna (northern as well as southern Guinea Savanna (northern and Southern Guinea), Sudan savanna and sahel Savanna)

Biomes Of The World


They are common in the tropics , along the rivers’ mouths and the coast. Mangrove swamps are forests made up comprised of evergreen, small broad-leaved plants that are found in brackish and shallow soil or in wet water. Mangrove trees are often found with breathing roots and pop roots, also known as pneumatophores. The climate is humid and hot with an annual total rainfall at over 250cm, and temperatures of around 26 zeroc. In Nigeria mangrove swamps can be located within the Delta region in Lagos, Delta, Rivers, Bayelsa and Cross rivers states.

Biomes Of The World


It is located in the region which is located between the equator and the latitude of 5 5-10 5 0N along with S. It is characterized by the following:

  • The forest is mostly lowland.
  • The weather is humid and hot.
  • It is composed of broad-leaved trees that are mostly green. The leaves eventually shed over the course of the year, only to be replaced by new leaves.
  • They form canopy layers, with their interiors having low light intensity with high humidity, as well as a damp floors.
  • The trees have a thin bark.
  • The forest is full of epiphytes and wood climbers.
  • The annual temperature and rainfall is 200 cm and 0c respectively.

In Nigeria the tropical rain is prevalent throughout Edo, Delta, Ondo, Imo, Lagos, Rivers state e.t.c.

Biomes Of The World


These are tropical grasslands found in Africa. They’re typically flat for miles on an extended distance and comprised mostly of grasses. The Savanna region is characterized by dry and hot season (29 0c) which are alternated by dry and cool seasons (18 0c). The average annual rainfall is 50cm to 150cm. In the dry season the grasses are typically dry and brown , and bush fires are common.

South Guinea savanna (the largest of the biomes found in Nigeria) is covered in tall grasses and scattered deciduous trees. It is located within Enugu, Kogi, Benue, Kwara, Oyo, Osun, Ekiti State etc.

Northern Guinea Savanna has scattered deciduous trees that are sometimes with tick barks or thorns. Grasses are small and plentiful. They are found in plateaus, Kaduna, Bauchi, Niger, Kano, Adamawa states , etc.

Sudan Savanna is the shortest of grasses and fewer trees, which is more dispersed. It is located in Kano and in parts in Borno, Sokoto, Niger, Bauchi states e.t.c

Sahel Savanna is hot and low rainfall. It has little and sparse grass and

Short and tough shrubs or trees. They are drought-resistant. It is located throughout Borno, Kastina, Sokoto, Yobe, Kano, Jigawa states, etc.


  1. In tabular form identify the major three biomes of Nigeria by using the following
  2. Total annual rainfall
  3. Temperature
  4. Regions identified
  5. Give five traits of savanna.



Abiotic factors that affect the ecosystems temperature and rainfall define the biomes in the world. The biomes comprise: Tropical rain forests, temperate forests coniferous forests, temperate shrubland and savanna temperate grassland, desert and tundra as well as mountain vegetation.


They are forests that have the following characteristics.

  • Most commonly, they are deciduous broad leaf trees that shed their leaves during winter.
  • Possession of moderately moist climate, with cold or dry season.



They are distinguished by

  • Conifers with needle-leaved leaves like pines and the firs.
  • Possessing a few trees.
  • Possessing a tree of a high height that forms an upper storey.
  • The forest floor is coated by a thick layer of conifer needles.
  • Enjoying a cool climate with snow and light rainfall.



This is a type of forest with the following features

  • It is composed of drought-resistant plants and dwarf trees typically resistant to fire, e.g. marquis.
  • It is a temperate climate that has moderate rainfall.



It is distinguished by:

  • perennial grasses thrive on fertile soils that can support the herds of mammals that graze there.
  • It has a moderately dry climate, with the cold winter months and hot summer.



It is an exotic grassland and has:

  • scattered trees, and often fertile soil
  • moderately dry climate that has the warm dry season and a hot, rainy season



This includes:

  • Very sparse vegetation, with succulent perennials with roots that are deep.
  • Afro-alpine and tropical areas with less than 25 centimeters annual rainfall.



It is distinguished by:

  • The treeless marshy vegetation consists mostly of dwarf plants grasses, grasses, lichens and moss. There are a small amount of trees of plants.
  • cold climate, with long cold winters and a very short summers that averages 10 zeroc.



This includes:

  • evergreen forest on slopes of mountains They are not as abundant than the tropical rainforest.
  • Afro alpine vegetation is found in elevations over 3000m in mountainous terrain. Its the vegetation is composed of grasses, heath and sedges.


  1. What is the biome?
  2. Local biomes are in Nigeria.
  3. The four Savannas of State are present in Nigeria.
  4. What are the two main factors that affect the global biomes?
  5. State four of the world’s biomes that have two distinct characteristics.
  6. Based on their traits, you can distinguish between desert and savanna.


The College of Biology Chapter 23 pages 499-504


  1. How do savanna plants protect themselves from fires in the bush? They’ve got A. Sunken Stomata. Thorn bark C. dense trees D. gentle leaves
  2. The following resources are coveted by species living in deserts?

A. Light B. oxygen C. temperature D. water

  • Which is an authentic characteristic of rainforests of the tropical region? A. The vegetation is primarily composed of tall trees with a thick canopy B. Forests are rich with epiphytes, climbers and C. Annual rainfall is lower than 100cm D. Annual temperature can be as high as 27, 0c
  • Which one of the following not define the coniferous forests? A. conifers that have needle leaves B. broad leafed evergreen conifers. having a small number of trees

D. having a cold temperate climate

  • The montane vegetation is described as the following with the exception of. Treeless marshy vegetation. evergreen rainforests on mountain slopes C. forest is less lush as tropical rainforest. Afro alpine vegetation in elevations of 300m or more on mountains.


  1. Discuss the features of the savanna in terms of a global biome.
  2. State four distinctive features of the plant life found in A. Savanna B. the tropical forest C. Desert.

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